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Headphones, Earphones, Hearables

Examples

 

 


Application

 

 

  • Consumer and convenience applications
  • Wireless and mobile communication devices
  • Telecommunication
  • Headsets
  • Devices with Active Noise Cancellation (ANC)
  • Hearing aids



Particularities

Headphones, earphones, hearables and hearing aids are designed to operate very close to the human ear having a completely different load condition compared to normal loudspeakers. Special test gear for mounting headphones and simulating the human ear is required. A reproducible and stable mounting is key for accurate testing.

Usually such devices are using wide bandwidth transducers with very light membranes and without spider. Thus, they are quite sensitive to mechanical damage and need to be tested for impulsive, irregular distortion (Rub&Buzz). Stereo balance, phase matching and sound leakage into the ambience are important criteria for headphone performance, especially for wireless audio interfaces. Headsets also require microphone testing in addition.


Critical Issues

  • Max SPL level, hearing protection
  • Rub & Buzz, air leakage noise and other impulsive distortion
  • Stereo balance (difference between left and right channel)
  • Leakage noise to ambience
  • Damping of external noise (ANC performance)
  • True wireless interface (phase match of left and right channel)  


Standards

International Electrotechnical Commission
IEC 60268-7, Sound System Equipment, Part 7: Headphones and Earphones
IEC 60318-1, Electroacoustics - Simulators of Human Head and Ear - Part 1: Ear Simulator for the Measurement of Supra-aural and Circum-aural Earphones

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE 269-2010 Standard Methods for Measuring Transmission Performance of Analog and Digital Telephone Sets, Handsets, and Headsets 
IEEE 1329 Standard Method for Measuring Transmission Performance of Handsfree Telephone Sets

European Standards
BS EN 50332

International Telecommunication Union
ITU-R Recommendation BS. 775-2 Multi-channel Stereophonic Sound System with and without Accompanying Picture
ITU-T P.581 Use of Head and Torso Simulator for Hands-free and Handset Terminal Testing

International Organization for Standardization
ISO 4869-3 Acoustics - Hearing protectors - Part 3: Measurement of insertion loss of ear-muff type protectors using an acoustic test fixture


Most relevant Measurements 

Modules of R&D SYSTEM

Modules of QC SYSTEM

Linear lumped parameters
(resonance frequency, Q-factors, Thiele/Small, creep, inductance)

Linear Parameter Measurement (LPM)
Multipoint Measurement Tool (MMT)

Impedance Task (IMP)
T/S Parameter Laser Fitting (TSX)

Irregular loudspeaker defects
(Rub & Buzz, loose particles, wire beat, bottoming, air leakage noise)

Transfer Function Measurement (TRF PRO)

Air Leak Detection (ALD)
Equalization & Alignment (EQA)
Hi-2 Weighted Harmonic Distortion (Hi-2)
Meta Hearing Technology (MHT)
Spectrum Analysis (SAN)
Sound Pressure Task (SPL)
Sound Pressure and Impedance Task (SPL-IMP)
Spectrogram 3D Limits (3DL)

Amplitude response
(sensitivity, mean SPL, polarity)

3D-Distortion Measurement (DIS)
Linear Simulation (LSIM)
Multi-Tone Measurement (MTON)
Simulation (SIM)
Simulation-Auralization (SIM-AUR)
Transfer Function Measurement (TRF)

Equalization & Alignment (EQA)
Spectrum Analysis (SAN)
Sound Pressure Task (SPL) 
Sound Pressure and Impedance Task (SPL-IMP)
Multi-Tone Distortion Task (MTD)

Nonlinear harmonic distortion
(THD, components)

3D-Distortion Measurement (DIS)
Transfer Function Measurement (TRF)

Equalization & Alignment (EQA)
Hi-2 Weighted Harmonic Distortion (Hi-2) 
Spectrum Analysis (SAN)
Sound Pressure Task (SPL) 
Sound Pressure and Impedance Task (SPL-IMP)

Intermodulation distortion (IMD)

3D-Distortion Measurement (DIS)

 

Amplitude intermodulation distortion (AMD)
(modulation of the fundamental)

3D-Distortion Measurement (DIS Pro)

EAR Add-on to SPL Task

Thermal and nonlinear compression
(fundamental, harmonics, dc displacement)

3D-Distortion Measurement (DIS)

Multi-Tone Measurement (MTON)

Multi-Tone Distortion Task (MTD)

Multi-tone distortion

Linear Parameter Measurement (LPM)
Multi-Tone Measurement (MTON)

Multi-Tone Distortion Task (MTD)

Phase response

Transfer Function Measurement (TRF)

Equalization & Alignment (EQA) 
Spectrum Analysis (SAN)
Sound Pressure Task (SPL)
Sound Pressure and Impedance Task (SPL-IMP)

Minimal-phase, excess-phase, group delay

Transfer Function Measurement (TRF)

Equalization & Alignment (EQA) 
Spectrum Analysis (SAN) 
Sound Pressure Task (SPL) 
Sound Pressure and Impedance Task (SPL-IMP)

Time-frequency analysis (Wigner, cumulative decay spectrum, sonagraph, wavelet, …)

Time Frequency Analysis (TFA)
Transfer Function Measurement (TRF)

Spectrogram 3D Limits (3DL)

Accelerated life test, power test
(durability, parameter variation)

Live Audio Analyzer (LAA)
Large Signal Identification (LSI)
Power Testing (PWT)

 

Polar radiation response analysis (far field SPL response at spatial resolution), directivity index, sound power

Near Field Scanner (NFS)
Scanning Vibrometer System (SCN)

 

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